Incense fragrances released daily under the Bodhi Tree during ‘Air’


Each morning as the Gallery of Modern Art (GOMA) opens at 10am during the exhibition ‘Air‘ (until 23 April 2023), incense fragrances are released during a ceremonial offering under Lee Mingwei’s Bodhi Tree Project 2006 (illustrated).

Katie Paterson ‘To Burn, Forest, Fire’

Katie Paterson, United Kingdom b.1981 / To Burn, Forest, Fire, Katie Paterson 2021 / Bespoke incense sticks / Originally commissioned by IHME Helsinki, 2021 / Image courtesy: Katie Paterson / Photography: Veikko Somerpuro

Wafts of incense transport us across the vastness of evolutionary time in Katie Paterson’s To Burn, Forest, Fire 2021. Two small incense sticks — one marking the first-ever forest; the other an imagined last-ever forest in a future stage of the climate crisis — conjure the spirits of dead forests via a sensory experience. Paterson worked with a team of researchers to determine the perfume of each forest, drawing on scientific knowledge about the evolution of life on Earth.

The first forest’s smell is described by the artist as resembling ‘swampy decay’ and takes its cue from a petrified North American forest dating from the Devonian period 385 million years ago. Its fragrance notes are shaped by the prehistoric ferns, algae, fungi and early invertebrate insect life which predated sweeter-smelling flowers and vegetation. The last forest’s aroma contains sweet and bitter scents ranging ‘from the alcoholic fizz of guava trees to the fresh peanut-like aroma of the Earth’. Its characteristics hail from an Amazonian rainforest, selected because its biodiversity offers some resilience against climate change.

The artist encourages you to dwell under the canopy of Lee Mingwei’s ‘Bodhi Tree Project’ 2006 for the full duration of this sensory experience. Daily 10.00 – 10.30am. If attending this free event, please purchase your timed-entry ticket to the ‘Air’ exhibition for the 10.30am session or later.

Lee Mingwei ‘Bodhi Tree Project’

Since 2008, a Bodhi tree (Ficus religiosa) has become a natural part of the urban landscape outside the Gallery of Modern Art. Today, in conversation with the architecture, grounds and public art of the surrounding precinct, the towering tree creates a quiet canopy for gathering and contemplation, its lofty branches punctuating views to the sky and its thousands of heart-shaped leaves (illustrated) casting dappled light below. The Bodhi tree’s harmony with the surrounding environment, however, conceals its historical and spiritual significance as it symbolises ancient beliefs and a series of journeys through time and across lands and seas.

Lee Mingwei, Taiwan/United States b.1964 / Bodhi Tree Project 2006 / Living installation Bodhi tree, marble seats (designed by Lee Mingwei; carved by Paul Stumkat, Queensland) / Commissioned by the Queensland Government for the Millennium Arts Project, Queensland Cultural Centre, Bodhi Tree Lawn, Queensland Art Gallery | Gallery of Modern Art / © Lee Mingwei / Photographs: C Callistemon © QAGOMA

The Bodhi tree’s story starts around 2500 years ago in a town now known as Bodh Gaya in northern India, where the young prince Siddhartha Gautama achieved enlightenment under a related fig tree. He became known as ‘Buddha’, ‘the awakened one’, and the sacred tree took the name ‘Bodhi’, meaning ‘awakening’. Following the death of Buddha, a sapling from the holy tree was taken to Sri Lanka and planted in the city of Anuradhapura in 249 BCE. It was named Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi and is one of the most sacred trees in the world. It is also considered the oldest living tree with a recorded date of planting.

In the early 2000s, Taiwanese-born artist Lee Mingwei approached Raja Maha Temple, the custodian of the ancient tree in Sri Lanka, and after considerable consultation, the head priest took a cutting from the tree and gave permission for it to be planted at Kurilpa Point, the site of GOMA.1 The sapling was grown in the temple grounds for a year before it was ready to travel, when the monks and worshippers held ceremonies to prepare for its departure.

Bodhi Tree planting, 2008

Bodhi Tree site ready for planting / Photograph: N Harth © QAGOMA
Lee Mingwei planting the Bodhi Tree, Gallery of Modern Art, 2008 / Photograph: N Harth © QAGOMA

Through the Bodhi Tree Project, Mingwei explores how a public sculpture normally remains vulnerable to the elements, while the Bodhi tree has become part of its environment, weathering subtropical downpours and heatwaves, and growing to a great height.2 Over the years, the small sapling has grown into a prominent natural landmark, and every year members of the Chung Tian Temple perform a blessing ceremony as part of Buddha’s Birth Day Festival.3 The tree is a unique living artwork, swaying in the breeze, changing colour with the seasons and dropping its leaves on the grass below as a community grows and evolves with it. 

1 The stretch of the Maiwar (Brisbane) River where the cultural precinct is located is known as Kurilpa Point, named after the Kuril (native water rat) and signifying the Indigenous history and significance of the site.
2 Lee Mingwei, quoted in ‘Lee Mingwei: Brisbane interview’, QAGOMA YouTube, 15 December 2010, <>, viewed June 2022.
3 The sapling was first taken to Fo Guang Shan Chung Tian Temple (Priestdale) and the members of the temple have since acted as cultural custodians of the Bodhi tree. The annual Bodhi Tree blessing is led by the abbess and venerables of the temple.

Edited extract from the accompanying exhibition publication Air available at the QAGOMA Store and online.

Air’ / Gallery of Modern Art, Gallery 1.1 (The Fairfax Gallery), Gallery 1.2 & Gallery 1.3 (Eric and Marion Taylor Gallery) / 26 November 2022 to 23 April 2023.

Buy timed tickets for the ‘Air’ exhibition in advance to guarantee entry. Last session 4.00pm daily. Exhibition closes at 5.00pm.

The accompanying exhibition publication Air is available at the QAGOMA Store and online.

Featured image: Bodhi Tree (Photograph: C Callistermon © QAGOMA) and Katie Paterson To Burn, Forest, Fire incense sticks (Image courtesy: Katie Paterson / Photography: Veikko Somerpuro).